Instructional Design

Historical Overview

The Early Days
Principles of Learning (1921) Edward Thorndike
Learning occurs
when topic is carefully controlled and sequenced and students appropriately reinforced.  Practice is the key to learning

John Dewey

Instructional Systems Theories
The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching (1954)  B. F. Skinner
Posited the teaching machine concept--the roots of CAI
A History of Instructional Technology (1968)
Adovated the Research, Development, and Diffusion paradigm

"In the education sector, it is becoming increasingly apparent to scientifically oriented educators that education must discard the folklore approach to instruction and move forward to new frontiers, this includes the development of instructional systems based on behavioral science theory, research, and development." (p. 270).

Programmed Learning - Skinner 1958
Programmed learning's success depends on task analysis and behaviorial objectives.   The early work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth in task analysis was later expanded by Robert Miller (1953) and eventually by Gagne in his 1987 work entitled Instructional Technology: Foundations, wherein he describes the hierarchical nature of learning.
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) Benjamin Bloom
Educational benchmarks in retrospect: Educational change since 1915  (1975)  Ralph Tyler aka the father of behavioral objectivesTyler's (1949) book titled Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.

Instructional Objectives - Mager, 1962
The practical use of behavioral objectives was not widespread until the publication of Preparing Instructional Objectives for Programmed Instruction later republished as Preparing Instructional Objectives (1962)  Robert Mager. Instructional objectives clearly define the terminal behavior performed by the learner and the criterion or standard used to evaluate the behavior.

Conditions of Learning (1965) Robert Gagne
Mastery learning  - Block, J.H. & Anderson, L W. (1975).
Mastery learning in classroom instruction Bloom, Madeus, & Hastings, 1981
Popularization by Madeline Hunter  in 1967
Based on the assumption that knowledge is independent of context.

Philosophical Overview

Two opposing philosophical views of technology

Technology as an autonomous force, beyond direct human control, and the prime
cause of social change (Chandler, 1995)
Technological growth is a series of revolutionary leaps forward (McCormack, 1994)
Toffler's (1971) book Future Shock outlines the determinist's philosophy

Technology as a tool, largely under human control, can be used for either positive
or negative purposes, and social conditions and human aspiration are the primary causes of change
Technological growth is an evolutionary process (Levinson, 1996)

Instructional Design Methodologies

Models for Instructional Design
Models for ID References
Instructional Models Based on Learning Theory

Learning Theories

Epistemological assumptions

"Globally, theory reflects epistemology.  Any theory must of necessity embody a perspective on what we mean by knowing.  As we shall see, adoption of a particular epistemological view has far-ranging implications.  We think it is essential that designers be aware of the epistemology their instruction embodies.  We also think that it is inconceivable to mix epistemologies in an instructional program."
Bednar, A. K., Cunningham, D., Duffy, T.M., & Perry J. D. (1991).  Theory into practice:  How do we link?  In G. Anglin (Ed.) Instructional Technology (p. 88-101).  Englewwod, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

How Should Learning Be Designed?
Instructional Theories

Reigeluth (1983) defines Instructional Theory as "identifying methods that will best provide the conditions under which learning goals will most likely be attained."
Reigeluth, C. M.  (1983).  Instructional design:   What is it and why is it.  In  C. M. Reigeluth (ed.), Instructional-design theories and models.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Learning Theories
Domains of Learning
Cognitive Domain- Bloom's Taxonomy
Affective Domain - Krathwohl
Psychomotor Domain

TASK:  Prepare a list that defines: stimulus and reinforcement (Skinner), scaffolding, situated learning, negotiation, cognitive flexibility, anchored instruction, and distributed cognition.

Does using a computer support learning?


Findings of CAL research

Apple Education Research Series:ACOT Report Summaries, Report #16
Computer Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study of the Influence of High Computer Access on Students' Thinking, Learning, and Interactions

Apple Education Research Series:ACOT Report Summaries, Report #19
Environments That Support New Modes of Learning: The Results of Two Interactive Design Workshops

The Impact of Technology
The Impact of Technology - Surveys, Bibliographies, Literature Reviews | Articles, Reports | Case Studies | Additional Resources

TASK:  Write ten rules for using a computer effectively. After each rule explain what thinking processes are used, what learning domain (s) is applied, what research supports this rule, and give one actual application of the rule.

Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media by Richard E. Clark

TASK:  Create a model for integrating computers into instruction.  Include at least five tasks.  Provide support for each task from research literature and cognitive skills.  Your model needs to answer your question, "How should my students use a computer?"as well as helping others determine how to build a lesson that includes technology.  Models will vary among approaches for teaching. For example, if you use a direct instruction approach or a behaviorist approach you will probably predetermine the use of technology prior to the learning activities. If you use a constructivist approach, you will probably have a more responsive approach to integrating technology that relies more on student initiation and decision making.

Special Topics

Online Instruction

Issues Associated with the Design and Delivery of On-Line Instruction
Developing On-Line Instruction: One Model
A Guide to Online Education
Instructional Media:   The Internet Possibility

Professional Development of Instructional Designers

Bibliography Related to the Education of Instructional Designers

Significant Instructional Design Researchers

tack.gif (994 bytes)  M. David Merrill
     Tack.gif (994 bytes)   Component Display Theory
     tack.gif (994 bytes)   Instructional Transaction Theory (ITT) -- involves the representation of
            knowledge as knowledge objects and the representation of instructional
            transactions as algorithms

     Tack.gif (994 bytes)   MDM on ID
     Tack.gif (994 bytes)   Instructional Strategies that Teach
     Tack.gif (994 bytes)   Changing the Field: M. David Merrill By Bronwyn Fryer

tack.gif (994 bytes)  Lloyd Rieber
     tack.gif (994 bytes)   Preparing Computer-Based Educational Software
     tack.gif (994 bytes)   Rieber, L. P. (1993). A pragmatic view of instructional technology. In K.
            Tobin (Ed.),The practice of constructivism in science education,
            (pp.193-212). Washington, DC: AAAS Press.

tack.gif (994 bytes)   M. Tessmer
tack.gif (994 bytes)   Adopter based theorist
tack.gif (994 bytes)   Tessmer, M. (1990). Environmental analysis: A neglected stage of
             instructional design. Educational Technology Research and
             Development,38, 55-64.

tack.gif (994 bytes)   C. M. Reigeluth

tack.gif (994 bytes) Jenlink, P.M., Reigeluth, C.M., Carr, A.A., & Nelson, L.M. (in press). Guidelines for facilitating systemic change in school districts. Systems Research
tack.gif (994 bytes)  Reigeluth, C.M. (1997). Instructional theory, practitioner needs, and new directions: Some reflections. Educational Technology, 37 (1), 42-47.
tack.gif (994 bytes)  English, R.E., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1996). Formative research on sequencing instruction with the elaboration theory. Educational Technology Research & Development, 44 (1), 23-42.
tack.gif (994 bytes) Reigeluth, C. M. (1987). The search for meaningful educational  reform: A third wave educational system. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(4), 3-14.
tack.gif (994 bytes) Reigeluth, C. (1983). Instructional design theories and models; An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dick, Walter and Carey
Hannifan and Peck
Jonassen, D. H.
Knirk and Gustafson
Jerrold Kemp
Gerlach and Ely
Milheim, W. D
Tennyson, R.
Andrews, D.H., & Goodson, L.A. (1991). A Comparative analysis of models of instructional design. In Anglin, G.J. (Ed.),Instructional Technology; Past, Present, and Future. 133-155. Engelwood, Co: Libraries Unlimited.

School Technology and Readiness: From Pillars to Progress

Investing in School Technology: Strategies to Meet the Funding Challenge
November 1997

Other Resources

Applied ID in Training

Best practices
Six Sigma quality improvement




Training Resources
Brandon Hall Resources

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1998 Deborah Lynn Stirling, Ph.D.
Last revision J
une 24, 1999