The Early Days
Principles of Learning (1921) Edward Thorndike
Learning occurs when topic is carefully controlled and sequenced and students appropriately reinforced. Practice is the key to learning
Instructional Systems Theories
The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching (1954) B. F. Skinner
Posited the teaching machine concept--the roots of CAI
A History of Instructional Technology (1968) Saettler
Adovated the Research, Development, and Diffusion paradigm
"In the education sector, it is becoming increasingly apparent to scientifically oriented educators that education must discard the folklore approach to instruction and move forward to new frontiers, this includes the development of instructional systems based on behavioral science theory, research, and development." (p. 270).
Programmed Learning - Skinner 1958
Programmed learning's success depends on task analysis and behaviorial objectives. The early work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth in task analysis was later expanded by Robert Miller (1953) and eventually by Gagne in his 1987 work entitled Instructional Technology: Foundations, wherein he describes the hierarchical nature of learning.
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) Benjamin Bloom
Educational benchmarks in retrospect: Educational change since 1915 (1975) Ralph Tyler aka the father of behavioral objectivesTyler's (1949) book titled Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.
Instructional Objectives - Mager, 1962
The practical use of behavioral objectives was not widespread until the publication of Preparing Instructional Objectives for Programmed Instruction later republished as Preparing Instructional Objectives (1962) Robert Mager. Instructional objectives clearly define the terminal behavior performed by the learner and the criterion or standard used to evaluate the behavior.
Conditions of Learning (1965) Robert
Mastery learning - Block, J.H. & Anderson, L W. (1975).
Mastery learning in classroom instruction Bloom, Madeus, & Hastings, 1981
Popularization by Madeline Hunter in 1967
Based on the assumption that knowledge is independent of context.
Two opposing philosophical views of technology
Technology as an autonomous force, beyond direct human control, and the prime
cause of social change (Chandler, 1995)
Technological growth is a series of revolutionary leaps forward (McCormack, 1994)
Toffler's (1971) book Future Shock outlines the determinist's philosophy
Technology as a tool, largely under human control, can be used for either positive
or negative purposes, and social conditions and human aspiration are the primary causes of change
Technological growth is an evolutionary process (Levinson, 1996)
Instructional Design Methodologies
Models for ID References
Instructional Models Based on Learning Theory
reflects epistemology. Any theory must of necessity embody a perspective on what we
mean by knowing. As we shall see, adoption of a particular epistemological view has
far-ranging implications. We think it is essential that designers be aware of the
epistemology their instruction embodies. We also think that it is inconceivable to
mix epistemologies in an instructional program."
Bednar, A. K., Cunningham, D., Duffy, T.M., & Perry J. D. (1991). Theory into practice: How do we link? In G. Anglin (Ed.) Instructional Technology (p. 88-101). Englewwod, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Learning Be Designed?
|Reigeluth (1983) defines
Instructional Theory as "identifying methods that will best provide the conditions
under which learning goals will most likely be attained."
Reigeluth, C. M. (1983). Instructional design: What is it and why is it. In C. M. Reigeluth (ed.), Instructional-design theories and models. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Domains of Learning
Cognitive Domain- Bloom's Taxonomy
Affective Domain - Krathwohl
TASK: Prepare a list that defines: stimulus and reinforcement (Skinner), scaffolding, situated learning, negotiation, cognitive flexibility, anchored instruction, and distributed cognition.
Does using a computer support learning?
THE CONTRIBUTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO LEARNING
AND TEACHING IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Findings of CAL research
Apple Education Research Series:ACOT Report Summaries, Report #16
Computer Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study of the Influence of High Computer Access on Students' Thinking, Learning, and Interactions
Apple Education Research Series:ACOT Report Summaries, Report #19
Environments That Support New Modes of Learning: The Results of Two Interactive Design Workshops
The Impact of
The Impact of Technology - Surveys, Bibliographies, Literature Reviews | Articles, Reports | Case Studies | Additional Resources
TASK: Write ten rules for using a computer effectively. After each rule explain what thinking processes are used, what learning domain (s) is applied, what research supports this rule, and give one actual application of the rule.
Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media by Richard E. Clark
TASK: Create a model for integrating computers into instruction. Include at least five tasks. Provide support for each task from research literature and cognitive skills. Your model needs to answer your question, "How should my students use a computer?"as well as helping others determine how to build a lesson that includes technology. Models will vary among approaches for teaching. For example, if you use a direct instruction approach or a behaviorist approach you will probably predetermine the use of technology prior to the learning activities. If you use a constructivist approach, you will probably have a more responsive approach to integrating technology that relies more on student initiation and decision making.
Associated with the Design and Delivery of On-Line Instruction
Developing On-Line Instruction: One Model
A Guide to Online Education
Instructional Media: The Internet Possibility
Professional Development of Instructional Designers
Bibliography Related to the Education of Instructional Designers
Significant Instructional Design Researchers
Component Display Theory
Instructional Transaction Theory (ITT) -- involves the representation of
knowledge as knowledge objects and the representation of instructional
transactions as algorithms
MDM on ID
Instructional Strategies that Teach
Changing the Field: M. David Merrill By Bronwyn Fryer
Preparing Computer-Based Educational Software
Rieber, L. P. (1993). A pragmatic view of instructional technology. In K.
Tobin (Ed.),The practice of constructivism in science education,
(pp.193-212). Washington, DC: AAAS Press.
Adopter based theorist
Tessmer, M. (1990). Environmental analysis: A neglected stage of
instructional design. Educational Technology Research and
C. M. Reigeluth
|Jenlink, P.M., Reigeluth, C.M., Carr, A.A., & Nelson, L.M. (in press). Guidelines for facilitating systemic change in school districts. Systems Research|
|Reigeluth, C.M. (1997). Instructional theory, practitioner needs, and new directions: Some reflections. Educational Technology, 37 (1), 42-47.|
|English, R.E., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1996). Formative research on sequencing instruction with the elaboration theory. Educational Technology Research & Development, 44 (1), 23-42.|
|Reigeluth, C. M. (1987). The search for meaningful educational reform: A third wave educational system. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(4), 3-14.|
|Reigeluth, C. (1983). Instructional design theories and models; An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.|
Dick, Walter and Carey
Hannifan and Peck
Jonassen, D. H.
Knirk and Gustafson
Gerlach and Ely
Milheim, W. D
Andrews, D.H., & Goodson, L.A. (1991). A Comparative analysis of models of instructional design. In Anglin, G.J. (Ed.),Instructional Technology; Past, Present, and Future. 133-155. Engelwood, Co: Libraries Unlimited.
School Technology and Readiness: From Pillars to Progress
Investing in School Technology: Strategies
to Meet the Funding Challenge
Applied ID in Training
Six Sigma quality improvement
Brandon Hall Resources
Back to Home Page
© 1998 Deborah
Lynn Stirling, Ph.D.
Last revision June 24, 1999